Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Factor Labelling - 10:01

Tuesday, February 3, 2009

5.01 - Synthesis Reactions - 15:18


2 or more reactant --> 1 product

metal oxide + water --> base (bases contain an OH-)

non-metal oxide + water --> oxy-acid
(oxy-acid is a polyatomic with a hydrogen acting as a cation) - see what type of polyatomic comes to mind when you look at the non-metal oxide

5.02 - Decomposition Reactions - 5:23


1 reactant --> 2 or more products

metal hydrogen carbonate --> metal carbonate + CO2 + H2O
(the metal can be any of the metals to the left of the aluminum ladder combined with a hydrogen carbonate. The end products are CO2 and H2O along with the metal bonded to the carbonate)

i.e: NaHSO4 --> Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O

Monday, February 2, 2009

3.06 - Acid Base Nomenclature - 14:48

KEY CONCEPTS: When naming Binary Acids, start by identifying the hydrogen atom as "hydro" and name the non-metal using the "ic" ending and add the word acid.

Rules for Oxy-Acids:

They are derivatives of polyatomic ions and polyatomic variations. Follow the following 4 rules:

i.) ____ate ions become _______ic acid
ii.) per____ate ions become per_____ic acids
iii.) ____ite ions become _____ous acids
iv.) hypo____ite ions become hypo_____ous acids

Bases contain hydroxide ion (OH)-1

**NOTE: NO "hydro" for oxy-acids

Sunday, February 1, 2009

3.01 - Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds - 20:51


When you combine a metal and a non-metal, use the 5 Step Cross over Rule to put together your formula

4.02 - Balancing Equations - 22:35

KEY TERMS: balance both sides of the equation by placing a number (coefficient) in front of the compound. Don't be afraid to have to change that number if it does not completely balance the equation. Balance polyatomic ions first. Remember that REACTANTS are to the left of the arrow and PRODUCTS are to the right of the arrow. Refer to episode on "Counting Atoms". Don't forget your diatomic molecules:

oxygen = O2
hydrogen = H2
bromine = Br2
chlorine = Cl2
iodine = I2
fluorine = F2
nitrogen = N2

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

4.01 - Counting Atoms - 13:05

3.08 - Covalent Compounds - 14:25

KEY TERMS: 2 or more non-metals

Prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

3.04 - Polyatomic Ions - 14:06

KEY TERMS: 2 or more non-metals, Nick the Camel ate a Clam for Supper in Phoenix, "ate" ending

Underlined letter represents the atom
# of consonants = # of oxygens
# of vowels = # of negative charges associated with polyatomic
Ending is "ate" - except for ammonium ion and hydroxide ion

5 Step Cross over rule:
- Remember that polyatomic has brackets and the charge is written outside of the brackets
- remove brackets when the number outside of the brackets is a "1"javascript:void(0)

3.02 - Naming Ionic Compounds - 5:48

KEY TERMS: reverse cross over rule, metal, non-metal

3.03 - Transition Metals -14:40

KEY TERMS: transition metals, Classical system, Stock system, Latin names, Roman numerals, cross over rule, reverse cross over rule
"ic" ending = higher charge
"ous"ending = lower charge

3.07 - Hydrate Compounds - 5:01

KEY CONCEPTS: Name compounds as usual. After naming the compound include the Greek prefix for the amount of waters present and use the name HYDRATE

5.04 - Double Displacement Reactions - 6:13


pairing metals and non-metals

metals switch places with the other metal in the reaction

Don't forget the 5 Step Cross Over Rule! Don't forget to balance the equation.

3.05 - Polyatomic Variations - 10:14

KEY CONCEPTS: Always refer to the original form of the polyatomic ion.

From the original form: _____ate ion, if:
i.) you gain an oxygen, name changes to per____ate ion.
ii.) lose 1 oxygen, name changes to _____ite ion.
iii.) lose 2 oxygens, name changes to hypo____ite ion.

**NOTE: the charge of the polyatomic NEVER changes

5.06 - Combustion Reactions - 8:15

-these reactions involve burning a hydrocarbon in the presence of oxygen. Hydrocarbons are compounds made by ONLY H and C atoms.

2 Types of Combustion Reactions:
i.) Complete Combustion (plenty of oxygen)
ii.) Incomplete Combustion (poor supply of oxygen)

Formulas for Combustion Reactions:

i.) Complete Combustion

C#H# + O2 --> CO2 + H2O

ii.) Incomplete Combustion Reactions:

C#H# + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + CO + C

**notice the difference in the Incomplete Combustion reactions

5.05 - Neutralization Reactions - 7:11


-special type of double displacement reaction

acid + base --> salt + water

acids - either binary acids or oxy-acids (contain H)
bases - contain hydroxide (OH)

salt - ionic compound (ANY metal and non-metal)
water - we know what that is

5.03 - Single DIsplacement Reactions - 18:52


metals switch with metals**
non-metals switch with non-metals

**look at the Activity Series if metal would switch with metal. If LONELY metal is higher in the Activity series than the metal paired with the non-metal can the metal switch places. If the LONELY metal is lower in the series, NO REACTION will take place.

Don't forget to balance equations! Don't forget the 5 Step Cross Over Rule

1.09 - Groups in the Periodic Table - 4:44

KEY TERMS: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, octet rule, cations, anions, metals lose electrons, non-metals gain electrons

Monday, January 26, 2009

1.08 - Atoms vs. Ions - 9:34

cation = positively charged atoms (metals)
anion = negatively charged atoms (non-metals)
metals lose electrons, non-metals gain electrons

1.07b - Anatomy of the Atom - 10:01

KEY TERMS: valence electrons, nucleus of the atom, orbitals, shells, protons, neutrons, atomic number, atomic mass (round off), electrons, periods (horizontal rows), groups (vertical columns), period number=#of orbitals, atomic number=# of protons and electrons for neutral atoms

1.07 - Anatomy of the Atom - 20:50

KEY TERMS: valence electrons, groups, periods, orbitals, shells, metals, non-metals
#of neutrons=atomic mass - atomic number
Group#=valence electrons
Period#=#of orbitals