Thursday, January 29, 2009

2.01 - Electron Dot Diagram - 4:18

Valence electrons

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

4.01 - Counting Atoms - 13:05

3.08 - Covalent Compounds - 14:25

KEY TERMS: 2 or more non-metals

Prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

3.04 - Polyatomic Ions - 14:06

KEY TERMS: 2 or more non-metals, Nick the Camel ate a Clam for Supper in Phoenix, "ate" ending

Underlined letter represents the atom
# of consonants = # of oxygens
# of vowels = # of negative charges associated with polyatomic
Ending is "ate" - except for ammonium ion and hydroxide ion

5 Step Cross over rule:
- Remember that polyatomic has brackets and the charge is written outside of the brackets
- remove brackets when the number outside of the brackets is a "1"javascript:void(0)

3.02 - Naming Ionic Compounds - 5:48

KEY TERMS: reverse cross over rule, metal, non-metal

3.03 - Transition Metals -14:40

KEY TERMS: transition metals, Classical system, Stock system, Latin names, Roman numerals, cross over rule, reverse cross over rule
"ic" ending = higher charge
"ous"ending = lower charge

3.07 - Hydrate Compounds - 5:01

KEY CONCEPTS: Name compounds as usual. After naming the compound include the Greek prefix for the amount of waters present and use the name HYDRATE

5.04 - Double Displacement Reactions - 6:13


pairing metals and non-metals

metals switch places with the other metal in the reaction

Don't forget the 5 Step Cross Over Rule! Don't forget to balance the equation.

3.05 - Polyatomic Variations - 10:14

KEY CONCEPTS: Always refer to the original form of the polyatomic ion.

From the original form: _____ate ion, if:
i.) you gain an oxygen, name changes to per____ate ion.
ii.) lose 1 oxygen, name changes to _____ite ion.
iii.) lose 2 oxygens, name changes to hypo____ite ion.

**NOTE: the charge of the polyatomic NEVER changes

5.06 - Combustion Reactions - 8:15

-these reactions involve burning a hydrocarbon in the presence of oxygen. Hydrocarbons are compounds made by ONLY H and C atoms.

2 Types of Combustion Reactions:
i.) Complete Combustion (plenty of oxygen)
ii.) Incomplete Combustion (poor supply of oxygen)

Formulas for Combustion Reactions:

i.) Complete Combustion

C#H# + O2 --> CO2 + H2O

ii.) Incomplete Combustion Reactions:

C#H# + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + CO + C

**notice the difference in the Incomplete Combustion reactions

5.05 - Neutralization Reactions - 7:11


-special type of double displacement reaction

acid + base --> salt + water

acids - either binary acids or oxy-acids (contain H)
bases - contain hydroxide (OH)

salt - ionic compound (ANY metal and non-metal)
water - we know what that is

5.03 - Single DIsplacement Reactions - 18:52


metals switch with metals**
non-metals switch with non-metals

**look at the Activity Series if metal would switch with metal. If LONELY metal is higher in the Activity series than the metal paired with the non-metal can the metal switch places. If the LONELY metal is lower in the series, NO REACTION will take place.

Don't forget to balance equations! Don't forget the 5 Step Cross Over Rule

1.09 - Groups in the Periodic Table - 4:44

KEY TERMS: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, octet rule, cations, anions, metals lose electrons, non-metals gain electrons

Monday, January 26, 2009

1.08 - Atoms vs. Ions - 9:34

cation = positively charged atoms (metals)
anion = negatively charged atoms (non-metals)
metals lose electrons, non-metals gain electrons

1.07b - Anatomy of the Atom - 10:01

KEY TERMS: valence electrons, nucleus of the atom, orbitals, shells, protons, neutrons, atomic number, atomic mass (round off), electrons, periods (horizontal rows), groups (vertical columns), period number=#of orbitals, atomic number=# of protons and electrons for neutral atoms

1.07 - Anatomy of the Atom - 20:50

KEY TERMS: valence electrons, groups, periods, orbitals, shells, metals, non-metals
#of neutrons=atomic mass - atomic number
Group#=valence electrons
Period#=#of orbitals